Tuesday, May 26, 2020

What You Need to Know About Writing Dissertation

What You Need to Know About Writing Dissertation Life, Death, and Writing Dissertation If at all possible, look for a friend or fellow-student in the exact same position with whom it's possible to swap dissertations for proof-reading. Our dissertation providers include having the capability to communicate with the writer during the length of the undertaking. Should you need dissertation help, you've come to the proper location! The dissertation help you get will be unique, so we'll listen to your requirements and calculate a personalised quote for your undertaking. From anywhere on the planet, talented dissertation writers can be working on your thesis as you sleep, as you go out with buddies, or as you relax in a movie theatre for a while to yourself. Moving from doing the research to writing a thorough account of it isn't necessarily quick. Our dissertation writing service provides a range of benefits students are certain to appreciate including proofreading, editing, revi sions, formatting and a lot more. Our dissertation writing service allows you to keep the practice of writing flow obstacle free. A Secret Weapon for Writing Dissertation Perhaps more than other sorts of writing, dissertation writing demands an explicit comprehension of the subject matter, much of which can be rather detailed or methodologically intricate. If you must compose a thesis statement only we'll also assist you. Don't even consider dissertation editing after you finish writing the previous sentence. Sit with your advisor with merely a rough outline of the chapter and discover if it works. In case you have any questions, you can get in touch with our friendly support team night and day and get immediate assistance. When you pay for a thesis writing service you are receiving the very best help that money can purchase and searching for that service on the internet is the ideal location. Anyone may require some dissertation help from time to time. A great start is vital. Understanding Writing Dissertation Dissertation overload is just another issue that may induce writer's block. Students often wrongfully assume they must go through each and every supply of information about the topic they intend to approach. Many students have so many different things which have to be done and could really gain from a dissertation writer or assistance. Keep reading and you will learn precisely how you must proceed. If you establish too many objectives, your plan will appear unfocused and you'll be asked to decrease their number. There are many measures that have to be completed in order to complete the dissertation. The research phase has the intent of establishing the overall evolution of the paper. What to Expect From Writing Dissertation? It's important to come across enough resources to completely understand the phenomenon you're focused on, but you are going to want to quit researching at some point or another. When the list is exhausted and the functions declared it might be a great point to take a rest and come for a functioning review to make certain that you have declared each attribute correctly. Anyway, every bit of information you state in a dissertation ought to be cited so that there's not any reason to assume you plagiarize anything. The reasons could possibly be absolutely different. Writing Dissertation If you would like a flawless dissertation paper, don't be afraid to seek the advice of our expert PhD writers. As you probably expect, we're speaking about a proposal for the last dissertation paper. If you would like your thesis to have a huge influence, your paper ought to be significant for science. Dissertation proposal is a significant portion of dissertation writing. When you have the dissertation in draft form it becomes simpler to observe where you're able to improve it. At times, even when you appreciate the differences between the dissertation and previous work and know that you truly want to finish the level, you might still have trouble. As it has been mentioned, the function of your academic supervisor shouldn't be underestimated especially once you experience troubles with writing your dissertation proposal. When you are in need of a dissertation or thesis, pick the most trusted, custom-writing service in the business to assist you. In such instance, professional dissertation help can arrive in handy.

Friday, May 15, 2020

The History of Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt Essay

The History of Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt are both cradles of civilization. Both contributed greatly to human development through their achievements, failures, peoples, scientific accomplishments, philosophies, religions, and contributions. Mesopotamia is a rich flat plain created by deposits from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. At the southern end of this plain developed the first recognizable civilization, in the area known as Sumer. In 3000 B.C. Sumer contained a dozen or more city-states, each ruled by its own king and worshiped its own patron deity. The citizens of these city-states were classified into three classes: nobles and priests, commoners, and slaves. In the center of a†¦show more content†¦The ruler of this dynasty was Ur-Nammu. He was the first ruler to establish law codes and spell out regulations and penalties. Another great ruler was King Hammurabi of Babylon. He set up the Code of Hammurabi, which includes 300 sections of carefully organized codes that ruled the Babylonians. Hammurabi was the first example of a lawgiver. He provided one of the greatest written documents of his time: a stone column with a long series of legal judgments published with his name. Hammurabi even designed codes for the family life. He took care of the women and children in his society. He regulated marriage with care to secure a stable life for future generations. He combined both law and religious belief to create an ordered society. The Mesopotamians built on foundations laid by the Sumerians using their sexagesimal system. They had multiplication tables, exponents, tables for computing interest, and textbooks with problems for solution. They also developed systems of astrology and astronomy, and even created a lunar calendar. The early cities of Mesopotamia fell from one warlord to another, and were constantly changing, unlike the kingdoms of Ancient Egypt that kept its stability. The Egyptians lived along the Nile River, which probably made it easier to govern the people. The King was the owner and ruler of all Egypt and was considered a god by the people. The economy was a royal monopoly, the peoples duties was to serve the King. In the old KingdomShow MoreRelatedThe Relationship Between Mythology And History : Ancient Mesopotamia And Egypt1125 Words   |  5 Pages An analysis of the Relationship between Mythology and History: Mythology in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt William R Madden Western Civilization September 25, 2017â€Æ' How has history been affected by the myths of ancient cultures? Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary defines the word history as â€Å"a chronological record of significant events.† In contrast, Merriam-Webster defines the word mythology as â€Å"an allegorical narrative† or â€Å"a body of myths: such as: the myths dealing with the godsRead MoreComparing The Egyptians And The Mesopotamians Essay1449 Words   |  6 PagesWorld History Oct 6, 2016 Comparing the Egyptians and the Mesopotamians Egyptians and the Mesopotamians were neolithic civilizations. They both grew crops and they both relied on agriculture and had many rulers as time went on. We start at Egypt In 3100 B.C and Mesopotamians at 5000 B.C (1). The Nile river was a key place for the start of the Ancient Egyptian empire. Egyptians themselves were located near lower Egypt closeby the Nile Delta. They then slowly moved up around upper egypt. WithRead MoreTrends in Ancient Civilizations1234 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Trends in Ancient Civilizations Over the course of human history, humans and our ancestors have made tremendous strides. From Homo habilis making the first stone tools to the Egyptians building The Pyramids of Giza, human history is nothing short of intriguing. If it wouldn’t have been for each stride made by our ancestors we probably wouldn’t live in the world that we live in today. When the Neolithic Era began in 9600 BCE, human civilizations gradually started to spring up all over the worldRead MoreMesopotamia, Egypt and China Essay871 Words   |  4 PagesThe civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia and China were all different but were also developed similar ways of doing things. The political, economic and intellectual outlooks of these ancient peoples say a lot about their ways of life. The religious views of Egypt and Mesopotamia were rather different. II. Politics The political thinking of these ancient civilizations definitely had their differences and also their similarities. A. Mesopotamia Mesopotamia was divided into city-statesRead MoreSimilarities Between Ancient Egypt And Mesopotamia951 Words   |  4 Pagesform and later become civilizations. Two of the earliest considered civilizations in human history are Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. However, because of the different geography, exposure to outside invasion, influence, and beliefs, Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia came to not only contrast in political and social structures but also share similarities in them as well. When it came to the development of Ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations politics played a prominent role in structuring theRead MoreSumerian vs. Egyptian Civilizations: Political Structure Religion Society and Culture820 Words   |  3 PagesDescribe the ancient Sumerian and Egyptian civilizations in terms of political structure, religion, society, and culture. Account for the similarities and differences between them. Despite the fact that ancient Sumerian and Egyptian civilizations grew up rather close together, both civilizations evolved in vastly different ways. The influence of geography cannot be underestimated. Although both civilizations were located in what is now the Middle East, ancient Sumerians lived in a constant stateRead MoreAncient Civilizations1009 Words   |  4 Pages Ancient Civilizations Ancient Civilizations were more pronounced in the Bronze Age. This historical period lies between 4000 to 1200 BCE. Ostensibly, these civilizations were triggered by the onset of irrigations systems, which concomitantly increased food and water supply. Irrigation schemes and availability of food set precedence for people tens of thousands of people to live together in a common geographical location. Cities, states, and centrally developed kingdoms developed. From historicalRead More Exploring The Four Ancient Civilizations- Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Israel1009 Words   |  5 Pagesbeginning of history, people from across the land gradually developed numerous cultures, each unique in some ways while the same time having features in common. Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Israel are all important to the history of the world because of religious, social, political and economic development. In the first civilization, both Mesopotamia and Egypt relied on a hunter-gatherer economic system, during that time, every country in the world strived on it. Mesopotamia had richRead MoreMesopotamia and Egypt Essay before 600 BC911 Words   |  4 PagesMesopotamia and Egypt Ancient civilizations across history have shown unique and incredible feats of mankind. Arguably, two of the most prominent ancient civilizations in the Middle East and even the world are the Mesopotamians (Beginning 5,000 B.C.) and Egyptians (Beginning 3,150 B.C). Even though these two civilizations peaked about 2,000 years apart, they share numerous similarities contributing to their success, and also show even more differences that distinguish how each had a unique cultureRead MoreSimilarities Between Mesopotamia And Egypt1199 Words   |  5 PagesThe geographical location was an important factor in many of the ancient civilizations. Where the people settled determined whether they would have success at surviving. Both Mesopotamia and Egypt were ancient civilizations founded in roughly the same longitude and latitude area of the world. Hot dry areas full of dessert. What drew early civilizations to settle on these locations was the same for both places, land near water that w as good for planting. What is different about each location is

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Awakening By Kate Chopin Essay - 1459 Words

Gabriela Romero The Awakening By: Kate Chopin AP Literature Topic: 3 October 28, 2016 For as long as we can remember, the ideologies that society has set into motion regarding women on how to oppress them, has always been a constant issue. Years of control that women have had to face by being told how to act, what to do, how they should feel, and who they are in society, has always been a constant theme in women’s life. Society had oppressed women for so long, that they were afraid to do something completely different from what was portrayed as being right. Slowly, women started to find their voice, and were able to finally understand that their lives didn’t revolve around what their husbands or any other men in their lives needed and wanted. In the novel The Awakening by Kate Chopin, we see how the main character Edna Pontellier is slowly but surely able to overcome these barriers that were put into place by society, especially by three men in her life, Leonce Pontellier, Robert Lebrun, and her father the Colonel. Each man tried to either control or rep ress Edna, to stop her from exploring stuff that no woman would’ve never dared have tried back in the 1800s. These three men might have been different as to who they were in society, but they all shared that common goal to undermine Edna. Leonce Pontellier is a wealthy business man, whose ideals were based upon how society of his time felt they were supposed to be. The men were the ones who had to provide for theShow MoreRelatedThe Awakening By Kate Chopin1479 Words   |  6 PagesKate Chopin’s controversial novel, The Awakening, ignited turmoil because of her blatant disregard of the established 19th century perspective of women upholding strictly maternal and matrimonial responsibilities. Edna’s candid exploration of the restrictions on women through her liberal behavior in a conservative Victorian society makes her a literary symbol for feminist ideals. Despite denunciation from other people, Edna chooses individuality over conformity through her veering fro m traditionalRead MoreThe Awakening by Kate Chopin1102 Words   |  5 Pagesveracity of this quote as both find their independence by boldly exceeding the norm. Their stories were fashioned during a period of great change and both characters are hallmarks of the hope and power women were unearthing at the time. The Awakening by Kate Chopin and Tess of the D’Urbervilles by Thomas Hardy are novels concerned with the transformation of women’s roles in society. Their protagonists, Tess and Edna, are not outright feminists, but they are acutely aware of the limitations imposed uponRead MoreThe Awakening By Kate Chopin1919 Words   |  8 PagesIn the novel, The Awakening, by Kate Chopin, we see how much of an importance the men in Edna’s life serve as a purpose to her awakening. Chopin is known to write stories about women who are unsatisfied with their lives while living in a life that is dominated by men. Other than Edna, the main men characters are typical men of the late 19th century era. Chopin shows how these three men are diverse from one another. The Creole men are Là ©once Pontellier, Edna’s husband, Robert, Edna’s mystery man numberRead MoreThe Awakening By Kate Chopin901 Words   |  4 Pagescandidly. Kate Chopin is honorably amongst this group of authors. Her works divinely portrayed the culture of New Orleans and the lives of Louisiana s Creole and Cajun residents. Chopin openly express her views on sex, marriage, and the injustices of women during the time. Kate Chopin’s novel, The Awakening, best exemplifies the contextual achievement of realism through the rejection of conformity, the exploration of love, and the weight of social opinion on individual choices. The Awakening is publishedRead MoreThe Awakening By Kate Chopin1222 Words   |  5 Pages The Awakening By: Kate Chopin Emely Maldonado AP LIT Period 3 Topic 3 Maldonado 1 Displacement The late 1800s and the 1900s was a prison for woman’s individuality. During this time period, stereotypical views of women were commenced by society and men. In the era that the novel, The Awakening by Kate Chopin was published, the gender roles were graved in stone, men would work to maintain their family and women would adhere to the house-hold duties. Dissatisfaction with theRead MoreThe Awakening By Kate Chopin1193 Words   |  5 PagesDavian Hart The Awakening By: Kate Chopin AP Literature Topic 3 Hart 1 Over the course of time the male species has always been the gender to attain the more favorable conditions. Numerous cultures heed to the belief that the man is the provider and head of his family. This machismo nature can condition the mind to believe that a man should feel superior to a woman. The continuous cycle of male superiority flows down from father to son subconsciously. Do to this unceasingRead MoreThe Awakening, By Kate Chopin887 Words   |  4 Pages Feminism has been a term used by many authors and writers for centuries, symbolizing women being able to use freedom the way they want to, not the way others want them to use it. Edna Pontellier, the main character in Kate Chopin’s novel The Awakening, experiences an â€Å"awakening† in her life, where she discovers her position in the universe and goes in this direction instead of what others like her husband Leonce tell her to take, similar to the style of feminism. â€Å"In short, Mrs. Pontellier was beg inningRead MoreThe Awakening By Kate Chopin1427 Words   |  6 Pagessuffering an imposition (Moderata). Throughout history, the inherent inferiority of women to men has often been cited as a way to deter women from becoming an individual and pursuing more in life. This notion is a prevalent issue in The Awakening by Kate Chopin; in which Edna fights to live her own way and is ultimately unable to survive in the cage of society. Not only has this supposed inferiority effected women for generations, but it has created inequality in our society today; especially inRead MoreThe Awakening By Kate Chopin1633 Words   |  7 Pages1. Title of text (underline novels/plays) author’s name The Awakening by Kate Chopin 2. Characterization Character Development (a) 1.Edna Pontellier- Edna is the main character of the novel who is married to a businessman. Edna is a dynamic character because at the beginning of the novel, she conforms to society by being the â€Å"perfect† mother and wife; however, Edna suddenly realizes that she is no longer happy with the way she was living her life and began to become independent only for herRead MoreThe Awakening By Kate Chopin915 Words   |  4 PagesMany of Kate Chopin’s writings are trademarked by her unique, deliberate word choices. Chopin uses phrases that do not make sense and seem to contradict themselves to get across a point. In two of her stories, â€Å"The Story of an Hour† and â€Å"The Awakening,† Chopin’s word usage highlights the idea of self-discovery. â€Å"The Awakening† and â€Å"The Story of an Hour† share similar themes. â€Å"The Awakening† is the story of a woman in the late 1800s discovering her apathy for her traditional female role as a wife

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Complexity of Learning Lexicographic Strategies - MyAssignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about the Complexity of Learning Lexicographic Strategies. Answer: Introduction: Survey among consumers of Schmeckt Gut Energy Bars carried out in 5 districts namely, A, B, C, D, and E reflected mixed response on satisfaction level of consumption- a mean value of 7.27. Resultantly, weight of the bars was recorded to understand its impact, if any, on the degree of satisfaction among its consumers, thereby detailing certain concrete recommendations to address the situation. This report in consideration to the purpose stated, carried out certain statistical analysis on the predictor variable- weight of the energy bars and the response variable- customer satisfaction to establish the causality of the former on the latter. Statistical tools namely mean and standard deviation was carried out to understand the standard weight of bars across districts, followed by Pearson Correlation and Linear regression. Mean distribution of Schmeckt Gut Energy Bars across 5 districts reflected varied weight distribution initiating below 46 grams to above 48 grams (see Figure 1 below), despite the standard weight being specified as 47 grams. However, since majority of the weight examined remained within 46.90 to 47.20, slightly above and below the standard margin, the average weight distribution, taking all the districts together project a mean value of 46.88, establishing approximately standardized weight, when taken on average. Standard deviation of .70 obtained from the descriptive analysis justifies the concentration of data around mean value of weight (see table 1, below). Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Weight 160 45.20 49.00 46.8850 .70105 CS 108 3.00 10.00 7.2778 2.11728 Frequency distribution of customer satisfaction with Schmeckt Gut Energy Bars further presents affirmative results with 53.7% rating the bars between 8 to 10 (see figure 2 below). Hence mean value of consume response project an above average value of 7.2, with standard deviation of 2.1 validating the concentration data to certain extent (see table 1, above). Having established the mean values of both customer satisfaction and weight of the energy bars, it was now imperative to understand if there exist any linear relationship between the two variables. This imperativeness can be reasoned with the necessity to recommend effective strategies, which can be shaped if the causality of weight of energy bars on customer satisfaction is established. If not established, other parameters like ingredients, taste, price to name a few can be applied further, to strategize the degree of satisfaction among consumers. Bivariate correlation and linear regression, principal statistical methodology for observational experiments were applied to establish linear relationship and causality, where Pearson coefficient value projected its invariance to linear transformation of either variables (Rodgers and Nicewander; p.61). As seen in Table 2 below, weight and customer satisfaction established a negative relationship ( -.161) with significance at .10 index (0.9 6) and hence a negative causality of beta value (-.54). The results refer to inverse movement between weight of energy bars and customer satisfaction. Weight CS Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta Weight Pearson Correlation 1 -.161 47.413 .242 195.909 .000 Sig. (2-tailed) .096 CS Pearson Correlation -.161 1 -.054 .032 -.161 -1.677 .096 Sig. (2-tailed) .096 R square value in regression model too project a lower degree of variance (.026) with F value at 2.812, establishing the model not fit to regression equation and thus accepting the null hypothesis that there exists no relationship between weight of energy bars and customer satisfaction. Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Durbin-Watson F Sig. 1 .161a .026 .017 .69957 2.051 2.812 .096b Following the acceptance of null hypothesis that there exists no relationship of weight on customer satisfaction, this report moves forth in developing some concrete recommendations which purports to serve as guidance to decision making by Schmeckt Gut. Apart from the inverse relationship forming rationale for recommendation, the varying ratings of customers of the energy bar, going as below as 3 also serves as motivation. Besides, the deviating range of weight- from approximately 45 grams to 48 grams also serves as rationale for this recommendation. Based on Nicholas Bernoulli, John von Neumann, and Oskar Morgensterns Utility theory, consumers are rational beings who invest in only those products which maximize their well-being (Fishburn, 1989). Prospect theory propounded by Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky additionally attaches value and endowment as core elements based on which consumers choose their products (Kahneman Tversky, 1979). Following these two theories, Schmeckt Gut is recommended to develop the quality of their energy bars in terms of nutrition along with variety and unicity, which will make the bars precious to consume owing to unavailability of such elements in similar products in the market. Apart from acting as meal replacement, Schmeckt Gut energy bars should act as complementary choice for fitness conscious consumers or pregnant women, with ingredients like rolled oats, rice, seeds (like flaxseed or chia), nuts and whey isolate or pea blend as vegetarian options. Decision making should also focus in line with lexicographic strategy, where consumers evaluate products on most important attribute before buying (Schmitt Martignon, 2006). Here, if the energy bars are developed focusing of a target audience of pregnant women, this will potentially up the market, providing competitive edge to Schmeckt Gut in the market. Further, marketing theory of involvement propounds consumers to be applying cognitive effort to their decision-making process for acquisition of products perceived to be of greater importance. Following the theory, Schmeckt Gut is recommended to conduct a detailed survey on its consumers or target audience understanding the important elements they perceive should be added to energy bars. Such involvement of consumers in developing of products and decision-making will not only help build strong consumer relation with the brand but will also help align the organizations goal with its end user. Nonetheless, recommendation is made to consider having a larger number of specialized products each target a different set of audience, rather than loading all features into one product, as that not only affects the quality but also question its usability among consumers, hampering maximization of their long-term satisfaction (Thompson, Hamilton, Rust, 2005). To conclude, the report was limited to one parameter- weight of the energy bars in understanding consumer relationship, which if been wholistic would have contributed in making the recommendations more practically applicable and in-depth. Herein lies the future scope of report where in-depth studies on consumer perception on various important and not-so-important parameters can be studied along with effect of satisfaction of different sub-categories of energy bars on concerned target audience. Such detail will enable the board to develop effective decisions. References Fishburn, P. C. (1989). Retrospective on the Utility Theory of von Neumann and Morgenstern. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 2, 127158. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00056134 Kahneman, D., Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision Under Risk. Econometrica, 2, 263. Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1505880 Rodgers, J. L., Nicewander, W. A. (1988). Thirteen Ways to Look at the Correlation Coefficient. The American Statistician, 42(1), 5966. Retrieved from https://www.stat.berkeley.edu/users/rabbee/correlation.pdf Schmitt, M., Martignon, L. (2006). On the Complexity of Learning Lexicographic Strategies. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 7, 5583. Retrieved from https://jmlr.org/papers/volume7/schmitt06a/schmitt06a.pdf Thompson, D. V., Hamilton, R. W., Rust, R. T. (2005). Feature Fatigue: When Product Capabilities Become Too Much of a Good Thing. Journal of Marketing Research, 42(November), 431442. Retrieved from https://www.rhsmith.umd.edu/files/Documents/Faculty/FeatureFatigueWhenProductCapabilitiesBecomeTooMuchOfAGoodThing.pdf

Tuesday, April 14, 2020

Proc Report Secreates Essay Example

Proc Report Secreates Essay PharmaSUG 2012 Paper TF20-SAS PROC REPORT Unwrapped: Exploring the Secrets behind One of the Most Popular Procedures in Base SAS ® Software Allison McMahill Booth, SAS Institute Inc. , Cary, NC, USA ABSTRACT Have you ever wondered why a numeric variable is referenced in different forms within a COMPUTE block? Do you know the difference between a DATA step variable and a variable that is listed in the COLUMN statement? Then, this paper is for you! Welcome to PROC REPORT Unwrapped. We are looking at PROC REPORT and uncovering some of the behind-the-scenes details about this classic procedure. We will explore the components associated with PROC REPORT and discover ways to move column headings and change default attributes with styles and CALL DEFINE statements. We will also dig deep into example code and explore the new ability to use multilabel formatting for creating subgroup combinations. So for anyone who has ever written PROC REPORT code, stay tuned. Its PROC REPORT Unwrapped! INTRODUCTION Which popular SAS procedure has features of the PRINT, MEANS, and TABULATE procedures and features of the DATA step in a single report-writing tool? It enables you to create a variety of reports including a detail report, which contains a row of data for every input data set observation, or a summary report, which consolidates data so that each row represents multiple input data set observations. Here is another hint: this same procedure provides the ability to create both default and customized summaries, add text and statistics, and create columns of data that do not exist in the input data set. If you guessed PROC REPORT, you are correct! We will write a custom essay sample on Proc Report Secreates specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Proc Report Secreates specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Proc Report Secreates specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer For anyone who has written PROC REPORT code and has wondered what is going on behind the scenes, this is the paper for you. This paper explores some of the behind-the-scenes secrets of PROC REPORT. We will dig deep into example code as we begin to uncover some of the details of this classic report-writing procedure. As a bonus, you will discover some facts about the REPORT procedure that you might not have known. By the way, the code output in this paper is based on the SAS ® 9. 3 default output destination of HTML. Although most of the paper ontent can also be applied to the LISTING destination, the code that is shown in this paper is intended to be used in an Output Delivery System (ODS) destination, unless otherwise indicated. With that being said†¦are you ready to explore? Welcome to PROC REPORT Unwrapped! EXPLORING THE SECRETS (HOW IT’S MADE) PROC REPORT first began life as a procedure many years ago in SAS ® 6. Since then, it has been gaining popularity as the t ool of choice for report writing. Even with such popularity, there are still aspects of the REPORT procedure that can be further explored. In this segment, we will unwrap and explore some of the secrets behind this most popular procedure with a focus on the following components: ? referencing a numeric variable in a COMPUTE block ? exploring the difference between an input data set variable and a DATA step variable ? discovering ways to move column headings ? changing default attributes with styles ? using the CALL DEFINE statement ? exploring the new ability in SAS 9. 3 to use multilabel formatting for creating subgroup combinations Let’s start exploring the secrets! REFERENCING A NUMERIC VARIABLE IN A COMPUTE BLOCK All numeric variables are referenced the same way, right? Well, that depends on how the numeric variable is defined in the PROC REPORT DEFINE statement. Before we can explore more about the how a numeric variable is defined, we first need to understand some PROC REPORT basics. Then we will explore the many ways a numeric variable 1 PROC REPORT Unwrapped: Exploring the Secrets behind One of the Most Popular Procedures in Base SAS ® Software, continued can be defined in the DEFINE statement and how that definition determines the manner in which the variable is referenced in a COMPUTE block. In the PROC REPORT statement, the input data set is listed using the option DATA= . If the DATA= option is not specified, PROC REPORT will use the last data set that was created in the current SAS session. The input data set contains variables and observations. The variables are categorized as either character or numeric— that is it, character or numeric. PROC REPORT does not use all of the variables from the input data set. Only the input data set variables that are listed in the COLUMN statement or in the BY statement are used. All of the report items, including the variables from the input data set that are listed in the COLUMN statement can be used in a COMPUTE block. Each report item in the COLUMN statement has an associated DEFINE statement. If a DEFINE statement for the report item is not supplied, PROC REPORT will create a default DEFINE statement behind the scenes. If a COLUMN statement is not specified, PROC REPORT will create a COLUMN statement behind the scenes. The COLUMN statement will contain only the variables from the input data set in the order of the data set. DEFINE statements can be supplied without a supplied COLUMN statement. The minimum statements that are needed to run PROC REPORT are a PROC REPORT statement with an input data set and a RUN statement. Behind the scenes, PROC REPORT will create all the necessary minimum default statements. To see the default statements, add the LIST option in the PROC REPORT statement. The LIST option will produce the basic code, including all of the DEFINE statements, in the SAS log. The NOWD option enables the report to run in the non-windowing mode. Here is an example of PROC REPORT code with the LIST option: proc report data=sashelp. class nowd list; run; The SAS log is shown in Output 1. Output 1. SAS Log Output By default, the DEFINE statement for a numeric input data set variable that is listed in the COLUMN statement will be associated with the SUM statistic. An alias for the SUM statistic is ANALYSIS. The SUM statistic is the most common statistic that is used in PROC REPORT code. The SUM statistic can be replaced with any valid PROC REPORT statistic such as MIN or MEAN. At BREAK and RBREAK rows, the numeric input data set variable with an associated statistic will consolidate automatically based on the associated statistic. When a numeric input data set variable with an associated statistic is referenced in a COMPUTE block, the form of the variable-name. statistic is used. In a COMPUTE block, if a numeric input data set variable name is used without the corresponding statistic (which is the statistic listed in the DEFINE statement), a note might be written to the SAS log. The following code will produce a note in the SAS log: roc report nowd data=sashelp. class; col age height weight total; define age / group; define heightweight/ mean; define total / computed; compute total; total=height. mean/weight; endcomp; run; 2 PROC REPORT Unwrapped: Exploring the Secrets behind One of the Most Popular Procedures in Base SAS ® Software, continued In the preceding code, the DEFINE statement for the WEIGHT variable lists MEAN as the statistic. The calculation in the COMPUTE TOTAL block for the TOTAL COMPUTED variable shows the WEIGHT variable without the statistic of MEAN. PROC REPORT requires this statistic and does not recognize the WEIGHT variable. A note, such as the following, is produced in the SAS log: NOTE: Variable weight is uninitialized. PROC REPORT allows duplication of report items in the COLUMN statement. This duplicated report item becomes an alias. When an alias of the numeric input data set variable is referenced in a COMPUTE block, the alias name is used without the associated statistic. Behind the scenes, any duplication of the same variable or statistic in the COLUMN statement will be associated with an alias name. If an alias name is not specified, PROC REPORT will create one. To see the assigned alias name, add the LIST option to the PROC REPORT statement and review the SAS log for the code. Using the preceding code in this section, the HEIGHT variable is duplicated in the COLUMN statement as follows: col age height height weight total; The resulting SAS log is shown in Output 2. Output 2. SAS Log Output Showing an Alias Name of _A1 Assigned behind the Scenes When the numeric input data set variable with an associated statistic is associated with an across variable, the column number, in the form of Cn_, is used in a COMPUTE block. In the form of _Cn_, n is the column number. The position of the columns shown in the output report is based on the left-to-right placement of the report-items in the COLUMN statement. For example, if a numeric variable with an associated statistic is placed as the first column under the ACROSS grouping but it is the second column in the output report, _C2_ is the correct value to use in a COMPUTE block. Behind the scenes, all columns are considered to have a column number even if the column is not printed in the final output report. Here is an example COLUMN statement: col sex age, (weight height); In this column statement, the first value of the WEIGHT variable is in the second column in the report. AGE is an across variable and is not counted as a column. The first column of the WEIGHT variable is associated with the first value of AGE and is referenced in a COMPUTE block as _C2_. The next column of the WEIGHT variable that is associated with the second value of AGE is referenced in a COMPUTE block as _C4_. Each unique value of the across variable becomes a header. Under each ACROSS header are the columns of variables that are associated with each unique across variable value. Each variable associated with an across variable becomes a column under the unique variable value. The number of unique values of an across variable controls the number of columns that are created for a variable associated with the across variable from the COLUMN statement. Behind the scenes, PROC REPORT has to know the specific column placement of a variable that is referenced in a COMPUTE block. The _Cn_ is used instead of the variable-name. statistic, the alias name, or the variable name. PROC REPORT Unwrapped: Exploring the Secrets behind One of the Most Popular Procedures in Base SAS ® Software, continued The following example code shows this concept: proc report nowd data=sashelp. class list; col age sex, (weight height total); define age / group; define sex / across; define heightweight/ sum format=8. 2; define total / computed format=8. 2; compute total; _c4_=_c 2_/_c3_; _c7_=_c5_/_c6_; endcomp; run; The COMPUTE TOTAL block shows two assignment statements. Each assignment corresponds to a column of WEIGHT, HEIGHT, and TOTAL for each unique value of the across variable SEX. The resulting output is shown in Output 3. Output 3. Output Using _Cn_ in the COMPUTE TOTAL Calculations A numeric input data set variable can also be defined as DISPLAY, GROUP, ORDER, or COMPUTED. Because there is no statistic associated with these definitions, the numeric input data set variable name is used in a COMPUTE block. Regardless of the definition, the numeric report-item can still be used in any computation. However, for GROUP or ORDER definitions, behind the scenes the values are evaluated from the printed output report instead of the input data. This means that if the ORDER or GROUP defined variable for a particular row and column shows as a blank on the printed output report, a blank is the value that will be used for any computation or evaluation. The following code shows three different methods for assigning the value of the ORDER variable AGE to a COMPUTED variable. proc report nowd data=sashelp. class; col age newage1 newage2 newage3; define age / order; define newage1 / computed; define newage2 / computed; define newage3 / computed; /* method 1 */ compute newage1; newage1=age*1. 5; endcomp; /* method 2 */ ompute newage2; if age ne . then hold_age=age; newage2=hold_age*1. 5; endcomp; /* method 3 */ compute before age; before_age=age; endcomp; compute newage3; newage3=before_age*1. 5; endcomp; run; 4 PROC REPORT Unwrapped: Exploring the Secrets behind One of the Most Popular Procedures in Base SAS ® Software, continued In the first method, the value for NEWAGE1 will contain a value only when AGE has a value for the sam e row. In the second method, the value of NEWAGE2 will contain a value for every row because it is obtaining a value from the DATA step variable HOLD_AGE. In the third method, the value of NEWAGE3 will contain a value for every row because it is obtaining a value from the DATA step variable BEFORE_AGE. The DATA step variable is created in the COMPUTE BEFORE AGE block. Behind the scenes, a DATA step variable changes values only through the code instructions. Also, behind the scenes, GROUP and ORDER numeric input data set variables are internally set to a blank in the printed output report at the RBREAK level. A COMPUTE AFTER block with an assignment statement for a numeric GROUP or ORDER variable at the RBREAK level will be ignored. A DISPLAY is always set to a blank at the BREAK and RBREAK levels. If you are routing the report output to an ODS destination, using a COMPUTE block CALL DEFINE statement with the STYLE attribute name and a style option that will accept text, such as PRETEXT=, is a way to override the blank values. A COLUMN STATEMENT VARIABLE VERSUS A DATA STEP VARIABLE PROC REPORT creates a column type of output report based on the variables and statistics listed in the COLUMN statement. Any variable from the input data set that is to be used as a report column or used in a COMPUTE block has to be listed in the COLUMN statement. The placement of the report items, variables, and statistics in the COLUMN statement is very important. PROC REPORT reads and processes the report items from the COLUMN statement in a left-to-right, top-to-bottom direction. Until the report item is processed, it will be initialized to missing for numeric variables and blank for character variables. Once the entire COLUMN statement report-items are processed for a row, PROC REPORT reinitializes all of the report-items back to missing for numeric and blank for character variables. Then PROC REPORT begins the process all over again for the next row of data by processing the report items in the COLUMN statement in a left-to-right direction. Behind the scenes, PROC REPORT consolidates all the input data set variables and statistics listed in the COLUMN statements for the execution of RBREAK BEFORE and BREAK BEFORE statements. For example, the RBREAK, meaning the report break, in the following code is calculated first: proc report nowd data=sashelp. class; col sex age,(height weight); define age / group; define height / min format=8. 2 Height min; efine weight / max format=8. 2 Weight max; rbreak before / summarize; run; The output is shown in Output 4. Output 4. PROC REPORT Output Showing the RBREAK Values COMPUTE blocks are also sensitive to the placement of the variables and statistics in the COLUMN statement. As PROC REPORT processes the report-items in a left-to-right direction, any associated COMPUTE blocks are also processed in the same order. This means th at in a COMPUTE block that is based on a COLUMN statement reportitem, any referenced variable or statistic to the right of the COMPUTE block variable is missing. Simply put, PROC REPORT does not know about any report-item that is to the right of the COMPUTE block variable in the COLUMN statement. A DATA step variable, also referred to as a temporary variable, is different from the COLUMN statement variable. A DATA step variable is created and used in a COMPUTE block. It is not part of the COLUMN statement. The value of the DATA step variable comes directly from the code in a COMPUTE block. DATA step variables are often used in IF statements when there is a comparison of the current row value to that of the value in the DATA step variable. PROC REPORT recomputes a COMPUTED variable value at every row, including at the BREAK and RBREAK rows. Values are not accumulated. An accumulated value can be calculated quickly using a DATA step variable in a 5 PROC REPORT Unwrapped: Exploring the Secrets behind One of the Most Popular Procedures in Base SAS ® Software, continued COMPUTE block because the value changes through the code only. Behind the scenes, DATA step variables used to accumulate values also include values at the BREAK and RBREAK levels. Adding an IF statement to check the value of the _BREAK_ automatic variable will help control when the accumulations takes place. In the following code, the computed variable TOTAL_AGE is the sum of two variables from the COLUMN statement. ACCUM_AGE is the accumulated value of AGE stored in the DATA step variable TEMP_AGE. proc report nowd data=sashelp. class; col age total_age accum_age height weight; define age / group; define height / min format=8. 2 Height min; define weight / max format=8. 2 Weight max; define total_age / computed; define accum_age / computed; compute total_age; if _break_ eq then total_age+age; endcomp; compute accum_age; if _break_ eq then temp_age+age; accum_age=temp_age; endcomp; break after / summarize; run; The output is shown in Output 5. Output 5. Comparison of the TOTAL_AGE Column and the ACCUM_AGE Column Notice the difference between the TOTAL_AGE column and the ACCUM_AGE column in Output 5. The TOTAL_AGE and AGE values are reinitialized for every row so that the values are not accumulated. The ACCUM_AGE and AGE values are reinitialized for every row but the TEMP_AGE value is not. TEMP_AGE is a DATA step variable and is not listed in the COLUMN statement. The result is an accumulated column for ACCUM_AGE. The _BREAK_ automatic variable will be blank for detail rows. A quick way to determine the value of a _BREAK_ variable value is to create an output data set with the OUT= option in the PROC REPORT statement and examine the _BREAK_ values in the output data set. DISCOVERING WAYS TO MOVE COLUMN HEADERS By default, the column heading values come from the label in the DEFINE statement. If you do not specifically specify a label in your code either in the DEFINE statement or through a LABEL statement, add the LIST option to the PROC REPORT statement, submit your code, and look at the code that is created in the SAS log. Behind the scenes, PROC REPORT will generate the default values it needs to create the output report. One of the default values is the label specified in the DEFINE statement. All of the column headings from the label option in the DEFINE statement span over a single column with one exception, variables that are defined as across variables. A column heading for an across variable can span over multiple columns. In the COLUMN statement, a comma after the across variable indicates which variable or group of variables are associated with the across variable. An example of PROC REPORT code containing an across variable is shown below: 6 PROC REPORT Unwrapped: Exploring the Secrets behind One of the Most Popular Procedures in Base SAS ® Software, continued title Default Column Headers; proc report nowd data=sashelp. shoes; column Region Product,Sales; define Region / group format= $25. Region; define Product / across format= $14. Product; define Sales / sum format= DOLLAR12. Total Sales; run; Output 6 shows the PROC REPORT example output. Output 6. Default Column Heading with an Across Label Spanning over Multiple Columns Behind the scenes, each unique value of an across variable is transposed from a column to a row. The row data is not available for any further processing within the code as it now becomes a column heading. In Output 6, each value of Product becomes a column with the Product value as the column heading. Under each Product column heading value is the Sales variable column heading and data for the particular Product value. The heading label Total Sales for every column is redundant. The output report would look better if Total Sales were removed from under the Product column heading and placed above the Product column headings. PROC REPORT provides a way to add column heading information that can span over multiple columns by using a SPANNED HEADER. The SPANNED HEADER is used in the COLUMN statement in this way: column (spanned header text variable-list)†¦; The following example code shows three different methods for using the DEFINE statement and SPANNED HEADERS for creating the column heading: proc report nowd data=sashelp. shoes split=*; olumn region ((1)Total Sales (1)Product (2)Total Sales*(2)Product product, sales); define region / group format= $25. Region; define product / across format= $14. (3)Total Sales (3)Product ; define sales / sum format=DOLLAR12. ; run; You can mix and match the methods. There is no best practice for using each method. The method that you choose depends on the look that you want for the column heading. The output is shown in Output 7. 7 PROC REPORT Unwrapped: Exploring the Secrets behind One of the Most Popular Procedures in Base SAS ® Software, continued Output 7. Moved Column Headings from Different Methods The three different methods are numbered in the example code and the output shown in Output 7: method (1) uses multiple SPANNED HEADER text; method (2) uses SPANNED HEADER text with the PROC REPORT SPLIT= character of * to force the text to continue on the next row; method (3) uses multiple labels in the DEFINE statement (you can also use a split character here). Let’s choose method (1) for the column heading and move the column heading to the top row. You can remove the label from the DEFINE statement by replacing the Region text with a blank â€Å" â€Å" and moving the Region text to a SPANNED HEADER in the COLUMN statement. There are three rows of headers. This means that the text of Region will need to be pushed up to the top row. You can do this by adding blank SPANNED HEADER text after the Region text in the COLUMN statement. Here is the modified PROC REPORT code with method (1) and the column heading text of Region: proc report nowd data=sashelp. shoes split=*; column (Region Region) (Total Sales Product Product , Sales); define Region / group format= $25. ; define Product / across format= $14. ; define Sales / sum format=DOLLAR12. ; run; Output 8 shows the output. Output 8. Moving Column Headings Using Blank SPANNED HEADERS Behind the scenes, when there is a blank header row and the output is routed to an ODS destination, the blank row is removed automatically. This does not affect the LISTING output. If you want to preserve the blank row, change the blank label on one of the DEFINE statements that is not an across variable to some value. Then add a style 8 PROC REPORT Unwrapped: Exploring the Secrets behind One of the Most Popular Procedures in Base SAS ® Software, continued statement for the header, assigning the foreground color to the background color. For example, if your column heading background is purple, then the style statement for the DEFINE statement would look something like this: style(header)=[background=purple foreground=purple] With the background and the foreground assigned to the same color, any text in the label will blend into the background color. CHANGING DEFAULT ATTRIBUTES WITH STYLES Beginning with SAS 9. 3, the default output destination is HTML. Behind the scenes, PROC REPORT is using the HTMLBLUE style. All the output in this paper all uses this default destination. What if you are not fond of the HTMLBLUE style? Then, what do you do if you want to change the default style of your output report? If you want to change the style of HTMLBLUE to another style that is supplied in the Sashelp. Tmplmst template store, you can run the following code to create a list of all the styles that are available: proc template; list styles; run; You can apply the styles by adding an ODS statement with the specified style before the PROC REPORT statement. For example, if you want to use the FESTIVAL style instead of the default HTMLBLUE style, the ODS statement would look similar to this: ods html style=festival; PROC REPORT also provides the ability to change the styles of the different report locations. Here are the style location values and a description for each that indicates which part of the report is affected: ? ? ? ? ? ? REPORT—the report as a whole HEADER|HDR—the column headings COLUMN—the column cells LINES—the lines generated by LINE statements SUMMARY—the summary rows created from BREAK and RBREAK statements CALLDEF—the cells identified by a CALL DEFINE statement All of the style locations are valid in the PROC REPORT statement. These styles apply to the entire location that is specified. The style locations can also be combined if the same attribute is being applied to multiple locations. This is the correct syntax: style= The following code shows how to apply the styles in the PROC REPORT statement: ods html style=festival; title Styles on the PROC REPORT statement; proc report nowd data=sashelp. class(obs=5) split=* style(report)=[outputwidth=7in] style(column)=[background=lavender] style(header)=[foreground=green] style(summary)=[background=purple foreground=white] style(lines)=[background=lime] style(calldef)=[background=yellow foreground=black]; olumn name age sex weight height; define name / display; define age / order; define sex / display; define heightweight / sum; break after age / summarize; rbreak after / summarize; compute before; line this is the beginning; endcomp; 9 PROC REPORT Unwrapped: Exploring the Secrets behind One of the Most Popular Procedures in Base SAS ® Software, continued compute age; if _break_ ne then call define(age,style,style=[pr etext=total]); endcomp; run; The STYLE options in the preceding PROC REPORT statement are formatting the output in this way: ? ? ? style(report) sets the report output width to 7 inches. style(column) sets the background for all of the columns to lavender. style(header) applies a green foreground to all of the headers. style(summary) sets all of the summary rows created from BREAK and RBREAK statements with a ? ? style(lines) sets the line statements to a background of lime. style(calldef) sets the foreground to black and background to yellow for the CALL DEFINE locations. background of purple and a foreground of white. The resulting report output is shown in Output 9. Output 9. Changing Default Styles in the PROC REPORT Statement The DEFINE statement supports two types of styles: STYLE(COLUMN) and STYLE(HEADER). STYLE(COLUMN) applies to the entire column but will not override any styles that are applied to other locations in the column. Using the same code in this section, you can modify the DEFINE statement for the NAME variable that creates the Name column like this: define name / display style(column header)=[background=plum]; The background of the HEADER and COLUMN locations for the NAME variable is set to plum. Because styles were applied already to the SUMMARY location, only the header and detail cells for the NAME column are changed to plum. A CALL DEFINE statement is used to override the SUMMARY style for the NAME column. The CALL DEFINE statement is discussed more in the next section. Output 10 is the resulting report output. Output 10. Changing the Default Styles for the NAME Column Using a DEFINE Statement 10 PROC REPORT Unwrapped: Exploring the Secrets behind One of the Most Popular Procedures in Base SAS ® Software, continued The BREAK and RBREAK statements support style changes for summary lines, customized lines, or both. A summary line is created from the BREAK or RBREAK statements. A customized line is created from a LINE statement within a COMPUTE BEFORE or a COMPUTE AFTER COMPUTE block. The is a break-variable that is defined as either GROUP or ORDER or the _PAGE_ location. A style on the BREAK and RBREAK statements will not override a cell style that is created by a CALL DEFINE statement or the STYLE(CALLDEF) option in the PROC REPORT statement. A CALL DEFINE statement will be used to make the style changes in this case. Using the same code in this section, you can modify the RBREAK statement like this: break after / summarize style=[background=pink foreground=black font_weight=bold]; The COMPUTE BEFORE or a COMPUTE AFTER supports a style option in the COMPUTE statement. A forward slash ‘/’ precedes the style option in the COMPUTE statement. The style option only applies to the LINE statement and will override any previous STYLE(LINES) requests. The style applies to all of the LINE s tatements within the COMPUTE block. Using the code from this section, a COMPUTE AFTER AGE block is added to show a style modification to the foreground of the LINE statement output. ompute after age/ style=[foreground=red]; line this is after age; endcomp; A CALL DEFINE is a statement within a COMPUTE block. To change a style using a CALL DEFINE statement, the STYLE attribute is specified for the attribute-name and the style option is specified as the value. The following is the syntax for a CALL DEFINE statement: call define (column-id | _ROW_ , attribute-name, value); Here is the code with all of the style modifications: ods html style=festival; title Changing Default Attributes with Styles; proc report nowd data=sashelp. lass(obs=5) split=* style(report)=[outputwidth=7in] style(column)=[background=lavender] style(header)=[foreground=green] style(summary)=[background=purple foreground=white] style(lines)=[background=lime] style(calldef)=[background=yellow foreground=black]; colum n name age sex weight height; define name / display style(column header)=[background=plum]; define age / order; define sex / display; define heightweight / sum; break after age / summarize; rbreak after / summarize style=[background=pink foreground=black font_weight=bold]; ompute before; line this is the beginning; endcomp; compute age; if _break_ ne then call define(age,style,style=[pretext=total]); endcomp; compute after age/ style=[foreground=red]; line this is after age; endcomp; run; The updated output is shown in Output 11. 11 PROC REPORT Unwrapped: Exploring the Secrets behind One of the Most Popular Procedures in Base SAS ® Software, continued Output 11. Final Report Output with Changes to Default Attributes Using Style Options You also can change styles by using inline formatting. Inline formatting is a feature of the Output Delivery System that enables you to insert simple formatting text into ODS output by using the ODS ESCAPECHAR statement. For example, here is a TITLE statement and the resulting output: title This is ^{style [color=red font_weight=bold] RED}; This is RED The inline formatting in the TITLE statement changes the text of RED to the color of red. The caret (^) in the TITLE statement is the declared ODS ESCAPECHAR. The ODS ESCAPECHAR statement has to be submitted before any inline formatting will take place. The caret (^) can be any unique character that would not normally be in your code. USING THE CALL DEFINE STATEMENT The previous section discussed using the CALL DEFINE statement as a way to change a style by specifying the STYLE attribute for the attribute-name and the STYLE= op

Thursday, March 12, 2020

Attention Disorder essays

Attention Disorder essays Learning disabilities or otherwise simply known as LD is a disability which can greatly impact a person's life. From the time you were taught the ABC's to the time you learned quantum macanics you are consistantly learning and developing knowledge of the educational world around you. Some are not so fortunet and although hold average or above average IQ's can not grasp the concepts of reading and writing. In this study it will be proved how identifying LD at an early age can help prepare a child for the rest of their lives. Paragraph #1: What'z a Learning Disability h There are many types of learning disabilities but some of the most common include; -Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) : Troubles concentration on one thing for a period of time. -Attention Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD): Troubles paying attention and is often hyperactive. -Non-verbal Learning Disorders(NLD):Excellecnt skills with language but poor in organization, perception, motor skills and social skills. -Dyslexia: Problems with reading and writing, letters are seen reversed, mathelmatical sequences are switched. -Dyscalculia: Problems with math and mathematical equations. h Definition: Learning disability is a disorder that affects a person's ability to interpret what they see and hear, or to link and process information in the brain. h Limitations are set in many ways including things like; -difficulties with spoken and written language. -purposless roaming between activities h One in every ten children have a learning disorder. Paragraph #2: What kind of things can be done? Proceedures? Tests? h Within the primary school system some classes are set aside for one on one help for ...

Monday, February 24, 2020

Rural Poverty and Microcredit in Third World Economies Essay

Rural Poverty and Microcredit in Third World Economies - Essay Example The traditional obsession with macro policies implemented at the state level has at most been disastrous. This, coupled with the inefficient delivery of aid to the poor nations, has only increased corruption, high and persistent inflation and unemployment, political repression and burdensome external and public sector debts (Woller and Wordworth 269) . This paper is divided into two parts. Part one looks at the latest strategy, microcredit, floated as a possible solution to ending rural poverty in Third World countries. Microcredit embodies the specific recognition that the lack of access to credit can be a limiting factor for significant numbers of the economically active poor. The second part seeks out a way through which the West can deliver aid effectively, efficiently and accountable to help combat rural poverty. The origins of microcredit Since the end of World War II few countries have moved from underdeveloped to developed status with the exception of the Asian tiger economi es. Though the reasons for this remain numerous and complex, Woller and Wordworth (268) attribute a large portion of the blame to widespread macro development policy failure. In the past it was believed that the best way to tackle poverty is through top-down, state-led development policies modeled on the experience of the Western industrial nations. These policies favored large-scale industrialization and concentration of economic power on elite groups. To make matters worse the international aid community reinforced the ills of these policies by pouring billions of dollars into numerous, and often dubious, large-scale state development projects (Woller and Wordsworth 268). Worse still, from the late 1960s, a rural alternative to the state-led modernization drive called the Green Revolution was initiated. The Green Revolution essentially forced Western agricultural practices on indigenous Third World peasant farmers, with many small family plots being expropriated by central gover nments and leased out to huge multinationals in the Europe and America. The end result of all these policies was uneven industrialization, high and persistent inflation and unemployment, endemic corruption, political repression and burdensome external and public sector debts (Woller and Wordsworth 269). In recent years economic growth has picked up creating a new sense of optimism for the Third World. However, even in a best-case scenario, it would be foolish to expect poverty eradication in these countries in the next few years. Woller and Wordsworth (270) are convinced that in the absence of policies that provide economic opportunities for the poor, macro development policies will continue to bypass the poor. What the Less Developed Countries (LDCs) need are small, concrete efforts that emanate from the grass-roots. The microcredit movement is part of this new paradigm that has emerged from the underground economy of the poor. The microcredit rationale Microcredit is defined as programs that extend small loans to poor people for self-employment projects that generate income (Woller and Wordsworth 267). With limited employment opportunities, in both rural and urban areas, millions of poor people in LDCs must earn their living through self-employment in the informal economy. This involves engaging in activities such as hawking, bicycle and/or rickshaw transportation, collecting scrap and running small shops. However, even these self-employment opportunities require capital for starting up, running or expansion.